Hormones are chemical agents, transmitters among different tissues of our organism. Hormones are produced by the endocrine glands. For example, sex hormones are produced mainly by ovaries and in insignificant quantity by adrenal glands. Hormones penetrate in the blood and make a targeted organ start its function activity or stop its work. The blood contains a large quantity of various biologically active agents at the same time, however, different hormones find their targeted organs. How it is going on?
There is a unique mode of action for all hormones, allowing them to know the targeted organs: hormones communicate with the specific albuminous molecules in the tissues, then penetrate into cells, and that means the process is started. It is interesting that each hormone has own specific protein-receptor.
So, this system works on the lock-and-key principle where the hormones are keys, and the receptors are locks. It is evident that if any hormones are not produced in an organism, corresponding “locks” could not be opened anymore and activity of this hormone-dependable organ will be decreased. For example, the estrogen receptors (female sex hormones) are situated practically in all tissues and organs, including the skin and the brain, thence, when sufficient quantity of estrogens is not synthesized not only genitals organs are changed, but other bodies. Ovaries are responsible for normal function of the female reproductive system.
However, ovaries activity is subordinated to the influence of hypophysis hormones, follicle-stimulating hormones (FSH) and luteinizing hormones. The coordinated work of hypophysis and ovaries is fulfilled on the principle of negative feedback, that means the low sex hormones level leads to making ovaries to produce more hypophyseal hormones (follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones level is increased). Consequently, the sufficient estrogen level is accompanied by decrease in follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones.
As we have already known that ovarian failure leads to deficiency of estrogens, we can assume that in menopause level of these hypophyseal hormones will be significantly increased. This fact for the doctors is important since it allows to find out that menstruation stops because of lack of follicles indicating at menopause, or certain diseases. We stop our explanation at this point because we do not study diseases here.
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