Symptoms of high blood pressure
Hypertension is one of the common diseases of cardiovascular system. Symptoms of hypertension are observed approximately in 30% of adult population. The prevalence of hypertension is up to 50-65% in people over 65 years.
Hypertension is a chronic disease, its main symptom is increased blood pressure. Herewith, high blood pressure is not a symptom of diseases of other organs and systems. Blood pressure is one of the most important indicators, characterizing the circulatory system work. High blood pressure indicates to the disorder of central regulation of vascular tone and heart function.
High blood pressure is dangerous because it may not accompanied by symptoms and detected by chance when measuring blood pressure. In some cases symptoms of high blood pressure include: headache, dizziness, increased fatigue, tinnitus, sleep disorder.
Symptoms of high blood pressure may appear from time to time and for a long time person may not know that he has high blood pressure. Therefore, people often turn to professionals only in severe forms of high blood pressure. In severe form of high blood pressure, main symptoms are also include: chest pain; visual deterioration; pain in the heart; tachycardia, swelling of the limbs and face.
It is recommended to see a doctor in the first symptoms of high blood pressure. Because high blood pressure can cause the development of such complications, as: heart failure; stroke; heart attack; visual impairment; kidney failure. Thus, it will be difficult to treat high blood pressure.
For most people, etiology of high blood pressure symptoms is still unknown. When reasons of high blood pressure cannot be determined, primary hypertension is diagnosed. Risk factors of primary hypertension are considered to be: genetic predisposition to high blood pressure; stress; excess body weight, sedentary lifestyle; alcohol abuse; tobacco smoking; age.
When reason of high blood pressure becomes dysfunction of nervous or endocrine systems; kidney disease, secondary hypertension is diagnosed. Secondary hypertension also includes symptoms of high blood pressure, occurring during pregnancy and when using some medicines.
It should be noted that regardless of high blood pressure reasons, they cause discomfort to a person and violate his working capacity. Therefore, in the first symptoms of high blood pressure, it should be measured. To assess blood pressure level, it should be measured on both hands at least twice at interval of not less than one minute.
Blood pressure is considered high if it is above 140/90 mm Hg. Depending on blood pressure level, there are three degrees of hypertension. In the first hypertension degree, blood pressure increases from 140/90 mm Hg up to 160/100 mm Hg. In the second degree of hypertension, indicators of blood pressure are equal to 160/100 mm Hg – 180/110 mm Hg. In the third degree of hypertension, blood pressure exceeds 180/110 mm Hg.
Main purpose of hypertension therapy is a reduction of blood pressure. Hypertension therapy is also aimed at the decrease of risk factors, contributing to high blood pressure, slowdown the symptoms progression of high blood pressure and treatment of related diseases.
Hypertension treatment is directed at lowering of blood pressure to less than 140/90 mmHg. If the therapy is well-tolerated and does not cause complications, it is advisable to reduce blood pressure to a lower level. It should be noted that it is difficult to achieve blood pressure level lower than 140/90 mm Hg in elderly patients and in patients with related diseases (cardiovascular system, diabetes) in antihypertensive therapy.
When choosing antihypertensive drug, it is recommended to assess therapy efficiency, possible side effects and advantages of antihypertensive drug in certain clinical situations. When prescribing antihypertensive drug, some factors are recommended to take into account: the presence of risk factors; target organs damage; related diseases; patient’s clinical state; drug interactions.
In modern clinical practice for reduction of high blood pressure symptoms five classes of antihypertensive drugs are used:
* angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (Captopril; Lisinopril; Fosinopril);
* AT1 receptor blockers (Eprosartan; Valsartan; Losartan);
* calcium antagonists (Verapamil, Diltiazem, Amlodipine);
* beta-blockers (Propranolol, Metoprolol, Carvedilol);
* diuretics (Hydrochlorothiazide; Indapamide; Chlorthalidone).
Combination therapy with alpha-blockers, imidazoline receptor agonists and direct renin inhibitors are prescribed in severe cases of hypertension.
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